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Such stylistic heterogeneity is also apparent in the sixteenth-century anti-Uniate polemics of Mykhail *Orosvygovs’kyi-Andrella of Orosvyhiv.In his polemical tracts Andrella blends languages and employs discursive strategies of intertextuality, allusion, and linguistic play that reflect a creative use of language variance.The oldest popular literary document, the Gerlakhovskii tolkovyi Apostol (The Gerlachov Great Epistle), contains the Church Slavonic texts of epistles, accompanied by didactic interpretations written in the Subcarpathian vernacular.

As Rusyns from Subcarpathia began to attend Western institutions of higher education (in Trnava, Vienna, Budapest) during the second half of the eighteenth century, they were inevitably exposed to assimilationist pressures from the dominant Roman Catholic culture of Hungary and Austria.

If a cultural representative from Subcarpathian Rus’ or the Presov Region wished to articulate his experience in literary form, it usually had to be within the terms established by the dominant discourse.

Subcarpathian scribes freely modified the original texts, adding material from various sources, including folklore, and using a language rich in local dialectalisms and popular sayings.

In didactic miscellanies (sbornyky), there appeared alongside the words of the Holy Fathers of the Church secular tales and even superstitious materials, which asserted the local tradition within the authoritative religious culture.

While imitation was a means of gaining a voice for the oppressed Rusyn culture, it did little to promote the development of a local, national culture.

The beginning of a truly Rusyn literature came with the national awakening of the mid-nineteenth century.Aleksander *Dukhnovych, “the national awakener of the Carpatho-Rusyns,” put literature firmly in the service of the national cause as it directly addressed the Rusyn people about the realities of their existence.Dukhnovych was the author of the first primer for Rusyns, Knyzhytsia chytal’naia dlia nachynaiushchykh (1847), which contained a long didactic poem in the Rusyn vernacular.Sharing its common beginnings in religious texts dating from the sixteenth century, Rusyn literary development gradually assumed distinct patterns along the northern (*Lemko Region) and southern (*Subcarpathian Rus’ and the *Presov Region) slopes of the Carpathians.In the *Vojvodina, Rusyn literature followed its own path from the end of the nineteenth century.Despite its many styles and linguistic forms, Rusyn literature embodies a consistent historical tradition that has stressed adaptation and survival.

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