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Ulf Hannerz (1996) argues that the idea of transnationalism is so widely used today, because the aforementioned phenomena pertain to a large proportion, if not to the majority, of contemporary people.Estonia’s citizens are no different in this respect.

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Indeed, critics point out that films can be national and transnational at the same time (Ezra and Rowden 2006).

Such conceptualization largely depends on the cultural perspective of the person who undertakes it, which includes, as Stephen Crofts argues, a very limited knowledge of the immense diversity of world cinemas (Crofts 1993: 60-1).

Equally, they do not address exclusively Estonian viewers, but international audiences as well, which is testified by a strong presence of Estonian films at European film festivals and the fact that they are routinely subtitled in English.

Paradoxically, Estonia’s leaning towards transnational cinema (or at least its opposition to nationalistic cinema) was expressed by Estonian critics and filmmakers in the context of the greatest box office success in post-communist Estonia, , 2002), directed by Elmo Nüganen, which is a patriotic “heritage movie,” opposing many of the trends described above.

To demonstrate this point, let us begin with the very concept of “transnationalism.” In his article “Conceiving and researching transnationalism,” Steven Vertovec maintains that “transnationalism” refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation-states; he reviews the various ideas pertaining to this term, concerning social formations that span national borders such as ethnic diasporas, and social networks transcending geographical boundaries, facilitated by modern technologies such as the Internet.

These networks allow the recreation of national cultures on foreign soil and enable the creation of forms of solidarity and identity that do not depend on the appropriation of space.

Another understanding of transnationalism discussed by Vertovec is that of “diaspora consciousness,” marked by dual or multiple identifications and loyalties.

Those who possess such consciousness might feel simultaneously “here and there,” connected to their neighbors, but also maintaining strong ties with those living elsewhere.

‘Names in Marble’ was probably the first film to treat patriotism sincerely and in a positive light.

Elsewhere, mockery and anarchy prevail” (Kaus 2003).

The most potent symbol of this absorption is Tallinn’s Old Town, the oldest part of Estonia’s capital city, surrounded by a four-kilometer-long limestone Town Wall.

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