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The increase in industrialization and urbanization of the early 20th century resulted in heightened crime, poverty, and social disorganization, all of which affected children.As a consequence, social reforms targeted to children, such as child labor restrictions and compulsory education laws, began to emerge [93].Many immigrant families are reluctant to seek or accept formal assistance from medical and social service institutions given past experiences with oppression, fear of being deported, and general distrust of authority figures [2].

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Many require new skills to navigate a new social and cultural system.

Furthermore, immigrant families may be isolated, and isolation, along with the stressors, increases these families' vulnerability to child maltreatment and other problems [2].

Childhood was not necessarily viewed as a distinct stage of the life cycle; rather, children were viewed as miniature adults [6].

It was not until the 15th and 16th centuries, with the rise of the middle class, that childhood began to be considered a separate developmental stage [6].

During the middle of the 20th century, there was increased emphasis on the rights of children, in part because of the grassroots movements advocating for the rights of disenfranchised populations [93].

The terms "child abuse," "child neglect," and "child maltreatment" are relatively new terms despite the fact that this social problem has existed through the ages.

Hispanic infants comprise the largest portion, representing more than half of all births in 26 states including California, Texas, and New Mexico [3].

The number of white children in the United States declined between 20, and by 2020, they are projected to make up 49% of this population [29,45].

In a meta-analysis of articles published between 19 on child abuse in America, researchers found that only 12% of the studies focused on ethnicity [5].

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